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The State of Vaccine Confidence: 2016

This year’s study surveyed 65,819 individuals across 67 countries, investigating confidence in vaccine safety and effectiveness, as well as perceptions of vaccine importance and compatibility with religious beliefs. The analysis, published in EBioMedicine, was conducted in collaboration with Imperial College London and the National University of Singapore, and the data was collected by WIN/Gallup International Association.

Overall sentiment towards vaccine importance is positive across all 67 countries, however there is wide variability between countries and across world regions. Confidence in vaccine safety is less positive, particularly in the European region, which has seven of the ten least confident countries, with 41% of respondents in France and 36% of respondents in Bosnia & Herzegovina reporting that they disagree that vaccines are safe, followed by Russia (28%) and Mongolia (27%), with Greece, Japan and Ukraine not far behind (25%). This is compared to a global average of 12%.

Percent Disagreeing with the Statement, “Overall I think vaccines are safe”

*Highest recorded value was 41%, gradient has been scaled to maximise visibility within this range.
This map represents percentage disagreement with the statement, “Overall I think vaccines are safe,” by combining the two disagree responses (Tend to Disagree and Strongly Disagree) and dividing by the total number of responses, including Don’t Know/No Response as well as the two Agree options. Countries in grey were not included in this survey.

Although in certain countries particular religious groups were more vaccine-sceptical than other groups, no one religion was globally predictive of negative attitudes. This indicates that the effect of faith on vaccine attitudes is dependent on local context, and that these attitudes are not necessarily driven by religious doctrine in itself, but mediated by political, socio-cultural and other factors.

Individual country data can be viewed using our interactive tool below:

Interactive Country Data Viewer

Download the report

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(2.7 MB)

Literature Literature archive

S Krishnaswamy, P Lambach, ML Giles 2019 HUMAN VACCINES & IMMUNOTHERAPEUTICS VOL. 15, NO. 4, 942–950
Editorial 2019 Lancet Adolescent Health Vol 3: 281
AHviid, JVinsløv Hansen, M Frisch,, et al 2019 Ann Intern Med 170(8):513-520.

Videos Video archive

VCP Research Fellow Emilie Karafillakis comments on the anti-vaccination movement, the role of social media and the importance of rebuilding trust. 

In this video Prof Larson explains what vaccine confidence is, the team’s work, and what needs to be done to restore vaccine confidence around the world.

As part of the LSHTM Vaccine Centre podcast series to celebrate World Immunization Week Prof Heidi Larson recorded an episode with about her work and the VCP.

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The Vaccine Knowledge Project at the Oxford Vaccine Group